Friday , September 30 2022

Experts explain how head injuries can lead to serious brain diseases



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Washington D.C. – In a recent study, biologists have discovered how head injuries adversely affect individual cells and genes that can lead to severe brain disorders.

Researchers at the University of California studied more than 6,000 cells in 15 types of hippocampal cells – the first study of individual types of cells that underwent a brain trauma. Each cell has the same DNA, but the genes that are activated vary between different cell types. Among the 15 cell types are two that were previously unknown, each with a single set of active genes.

Life scientists provide the first "atlas" of the hippocampal cell – the part of the brain that helps to regulate learning and memory – when it is affected by traumatic brain trauma. The team also proposed prospective parents for the treatment of brain diseases associated with traumatic brain injuries, such as Alzheimer's disease and post traumatic stress disorder.

"Each cell type is different," said Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, co-author of the study, published in Nature Communications.

Biologists have found that hundreds of genes are adversely affected by mild traumatic brain trauma, such as concussion. These altered genes can later lead to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other diseases.

Researchers reproduced a brain stroke in mice and studied other mice that did not have a brain trauma. Researchers analyzed thousands of cells in the hippocampus of both groups of mice.

Uninfected mice had very low levels in 14 of the 15 cell types of a gene called TTR that regulates metabolism, controls thyroid hormones, and performs other functions. Brain wound increased the level of Ttr in virtually all cell types, the researchers found. He concludes that TTR is important for brain health and can work to bring more thyroid hormone to the brain to maintain metabolism. A thyroid hormone called T4 was injected into mice. T4 has improved learning deficiencies caused by traumatic brain injuries and reverses changes in 93 genes that affect learning and memory. This reversal to injuries caused by traumatic brain trauma is an important new finding. After the brain injury, metabolism is significantly reduced. Biologists believe that T4 can "restart" the metabolism.

Researchers have found evidence that at least 12 of the 15 cell types are negatively affected by brain trauma, some more intense than others. They were able to see how genes linked to Alzheimer's disease acted on different types of cells, providing new details of where these genes act when they are affected by brain trauma. "We have learned what cell types we may want to target in future research," said Xia Yang, senior author of the study. "Perhaps the genes associated with Alzheimer's disease should not be active in all different cell types."

For the first time, biologists have found several genes that are affected by traumatic brain injury, which has recently been associated with neurotic behavior in humans. Traumatic brain injury is associated with depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. This research could lead to new therapies for these conditions.

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