Tuesday , January 31 2023

Human blood cells can be replicated directly to nuclear stem cells – (Details)


Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Stem Cell Institute at Heidelberg HI-STEM * for the first time succeeded in reprogramming human blood cells to a re-unknown type of discipline of the discipline. Stem cells, caused by it, are similar to those occurring during the early embryonic development of the central nervous system. They can be altered and multiplied indefinably in the culture box and can be an important basis for the development of rehabilitation treatments.

Stem cells are the organizers of our tissues: they will grow in uncertainty, and then – when the pluripotent is embryonic stem cells – create all kinds of thoughtful cells. In 2006, Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka admitted that these cells could be produced in the lab – mature body cells. Four genetic factors are sufficient to replicate the progression of development and to produce the so-called induction pluripotent stem cells (iPS), which have the same features as the embryonic stem cells. Yamanaka was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2012.

Heidelberg's German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and HI-STEM Director, Andreas Trumpp, said: "It was a big leap for stem cell research." "This is especially true for research in Germany, where genetics of human embryonic stem cells are not permitted, and stem cells have a great potential for resuscitation in patients with major research and recovery of patient tissue, and programming is also associated with problems: For example, pluripotent cells are called teratomas can create linear tumors.

Another opportunity is not to completely reverse the progress of the development. For the first time, the Trumpp team succeeded in reprogramming adult human cells so that certain types of nuclear stem cells were produced so that they could be reproducible. Marc Christian Thier, the first author of the study, said, "We have used four genetic factors, such as Yamanaka, but have used different variants for reprogramming." We thought that reprogramming would allow the nervous system to undergo early development. "

In the past, other research groups have also programmed the combined tissue cells to adult nerve cells or neuronal precursor cells. However, these artificially produced nerve cells could not be expanded frequently and therefore could not be used for therapeutic purposes. Andreas Trumpp, explaining these problems, said: "It was often a heterogeneous mixture of different cell types that can not be present in the body in physiological conditions."

Together with Frank Edenhofer from the University of Innsbruck University and Neurochymium Hannah Monyer from the DKFZ and Heidelberg University Hospital, Trumpp and his team succeeded in reprogramming various human cells: intestinal tissue and peripheral blood cells of the skin or pancreas. "The origin of the cells has had no effect on the characteristics of the stem cells," he said. In particular, the probability of producing neurovascular stem cells from blood of invasive patients is a decisive advantage for future therapeutic approaches.

A special feature of Heidelberg researchers' reprogrammed cells is the homogenous cell that resembles a stage of neurodeal stem cells that occurs during the embryonic development of the nervous system. "Relevant cells are present in mice and, probably, in early human embryonic development," Thier said. "Here, we described the type of neuronal stem cell in the mammalian embryo.

These "induction Neural Plate Border Stem Cells" (iNBSC) have a broad potential for development. Heidelberg's iNBSC's are expanding and versatile and can grow in two different ways. On the one hand, the path to development can be transformed into adult nerve cells and their delivery cells, to glial cells, the central nervous system. On the other hand, they can also enter the nucleus of the nucleus, the different types of cells, such as peripheral sensitive nerve cells or cartilage and skull bones.

Thus, iNBSCs create an ideal basis for the formation of different types of cell types for the individual patient. "These cells possess the same genetic material as donors, and are therefore recognized as" self "by the immune system and are not rejected," says Thier.

CRISPR / Cas9 gene scissors can be used to modify iNBSC and correct genetic defects, as scientists have shown in their experiences. Therefore, it is important for the development of major research and the search for new active substances, for example, in patients with diseases of the nervous system. However, many research studies will continue until we can use them in patients, "said Trumpp.

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