Tuesday , January 31 2023

The Chinese "Luna Incognita"


China is for the first time on the date of the Earth's rapid exploration.

China, which hosted the first robotic lander and rover of the nation by sending three previous missions from 2007, launched its last rocket on Xichang Long Mart-3B in early December 8th, 2018, in China's Sichuan province, Chang -4 space Launch Center with space carrier. Chang's e-4 is a lander and router, targeting the moon's farsid, the moon hemisphere, which is always moving from the Earth. In 1962, NASA, despite the fact that Ranger 4 hit its surface in Persia, no cosmodrome had been there before.

After a 4.5-day trip to Launchu and the Moon, Chang transformed himself into an elliptical monthly orbit to set its destination. Chinese officials did not disclose public opinion when Chang & # 39; e-4 attempted to land, but most experts are skeptical that it will take place from the beginning of 2019, with a sunny day for space solar arrays, about 14 days after the fierce sunset. The intended opening space of spacecraft Von Karman is a month-long effective crater located on a larger impact crater called the South Pole-Aitken Basin on Persia. This basin is the oldest and largest impact factor of the month.


A planetarian scientist at the Arizona State University and chief inspector for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), Mark Robinson, says: "We know very little about farsid in many respects than the proximity.

One hope is that Robinson and other month scientists working in the United States may be lucky enough to get into the difficult "bare" region in Chang-e-4, the month's farside. These basaltic beds, which are in the composition of ancient, cold lava, are much smaller in the moon, and less in farsi. Their names come from the Latin word for "sea" centuries ago, when their astronomers suspected of their darkness.

Robinson says, "We do not have a documentary example in marsis in farside, so this will be a first look" Scientific America. Mare basaltts look at the general composition of the moon and its mysterious mantle – the layer between the core and the crust – the detailed description of farside mare may differ from those of other scholars on the other, as it may suggest that it looks similar to the near and the Persians.

After Chang 4's land, Robinson says that the NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LROC camera system can show the Chinese spacecraft clearly after the touchdown. "If the Rover is not himself, we must be able to identify traces of lander and rover," he says.


The prominent planetary scientist Jim Bae, Brown's mission at Braun University, Roy Providence University, is not just a science-focused object of China's attention, but a long-term strategic asset of the nation. we will go to become a new global super power.

"All countries of displacement tend to be proud of themselves, as they see themselves as nations and reputations, in the sense that others can consider them." Moreover, as the Cold War between America and the USSR, successful cosmic exploration is a great demonstration of the ability of a "soft power" to demonstrate technological power and leadership in a non-hazardous manner. "Adds: China is in the forefront of renewed international interest in robotics and human intelligence in the month."

In China, part of technology is linked to the month of Persia, a satellite called "Queqiao", which began in May 2018 as a communication relay for Chang & # 39; e-4. As the mass of the moon blocks Underground radio transmissions from Persians, Queqiao can only send real-time information between only one space satellite apparatus and ground controllers. Head, Queqiao, on the one hand, may seem to be less of a support mission and much more like the first part of a "global infrastructure of rooted intelligence communications".

Hopes for the hope of Shanghai-4, any missions to the head of the month are mainly for the "Luna Incognita", thereby inevitably causing new discoveries. "Intelligence explores the uncertainty, and the month of Persia, especially the South Pole-Aitken basin, and the demonstration that we can start to investigate, the first steps stands on a new continent." It is difficult to predict the future, it is difficult to predict the outcome of unknown intelligence. So we're investigating! "


If all goes according to the plan, Chang & # 39; e-4 should be followed by the Chang & # 39; e-5 mission to start at the end of 2019. Chang's e-5 will mark China's second leg near Lunar and examples from Mons Rumice in Oceanus Procellarum, a large area of ​​the moon north-west of the moon.

At the same time, other nations have their own intelligence plans. India's Chandrayaan-2 camp will begin in early 2019 and Russia has announced its intention to launch a robot mission in the next five years. In the United States, propped up with the pro-moon position of the Trump administration, NASA relies on private giants to offer a month-orbiting astronaut-trendy space gateway "Gateway" as well as a public-private partnership, moon surface or vehicle for selective loads .

"CLPS provides many platforms and opportunities for reaching the Moon, especially through trading opportunities and partnerships, with CLPS capabilities being fast-paced and speedy for space flight, and will be interested to compare the results of the United States and Chinese approaches over the next few years," he says.

Collaboration or competition?

John Logsdon, professor of political science and international relations at the George Washington University's Space Policy Institute, says it is time to co-operate instead of competing for an updated global search for the month.

"China's Persian founder is the next step in the country's long-term exploration program, and it is not sensible for me to exclude the Chinese achievements for the United States because it is planning a lunar campaign. [an] Instead of evaluating competition as a threat to the US administration, perhaps the new Congress will work with China to work with NASA to make a truly global search, and collaborate with other partners, "says Logsdon. will make it possible ". In 2011, the US Congress, NASA from any bilateral coordination with China.

Marcia Smith, an expert in Space Policy and SpacePolicyOnline.com, says that China's interest in studying the Moon is inspired by NASA's renewed interest in everything. Chang has a number of international partners on missions from e-4, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Saudi Arabia. NASA is also looking for a partner for the moon program, but should be excluded from China as a result of Congress' legitimate prohibition.


"Certainly, the geopolitical situation with China is sensitive, but the same thing applies to Russia, but NASA and Russia have extensive space cooperation, except for the conflict in other fronts."

Thus, the US-China Monthly Policy is comprehensive: If NASA is able to co-operate with Russia to achieve common civil society goals, why not?

"If NASA wants to put laser retroreflectors in any spacecraft on the land in the moon," says Smith. "Perhaps the first step to adding Chang-e-5 to one may be." The congress's ban says it's not complete. The language of the major bilateral language of collaboration requires the NASA Congress to approve anything in advance with China. "So compromise may be for the preservation of language, but encourage NASA to take the first step as retroreflectors or other small scientific projects, and see what happens."

Leonard David, author of Mars: Our Future on the Red Planet published by National Geographic. The book is a companion to the "National Geographic Channel" series, Mars. David, a longtime writer for SPACE, provides information on the space industry for more than five years.

This article is from Scientific American. It was first published on December 21, 2018. Find the original story here.

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