Every October, science enters a period known as the October Madness. Anyone who follows science will know that this month is a very important time in the life of a scientist to receive one of the most prestigious awards. This is the Nobel Prize. The award has been around for more than 100 years, and this year marks the 120th anniversary of the 2021 Nobel Prize. Founded by Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Bernard Nobel. One of the most famous works is the invention of the dynamite bomb.
The author invites readers to stay away from the Nobel Prize 2021 forum and get acquainted with the outstanding discoveries and research results in the field of chemistry and the expected impact on the world. (Evaluated by the author’s opinion from October 5, 2021, Thai time) This year, Chemistry may be awarded the Nobel Prize in 2021. Because if you notice, you will see that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry is currently awarded to works related to biology. Or more and more medical, because we can’t deny it. If you look closely at the human body or the living things around it, they are all made up of chemicals, all biomolecules
This is especially true when the world is in an epidemic crisis. Chemistry has a great role to play in overcoming this crisis. For this reason, it is impossible that the focus of the Nobel Prize does not shed light on research in biology or medicine, such as the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in biology or medicine.
- 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of G receptor proteins on the cell surface. (G-protein binding receptors)
- 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Advanced Mechanism of Intracellular DNA Repair Processes (DNA Repair Mechanical Research)
- 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for Discovering Methods for Improving Function and Enzyme Engineering Using the directed evolution of enzymes and the phage demonstration of peptides and antibodies.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2020 was awarded to two women scientists: Dr. Jennifer Downna (Prof. Jennifer A. Doudna, Ph.D) and Dr. Prof. Emmanuel Cha Emmanuelle Charpentier, Ph.D. who discovered the mechanism of action of the natural defense system of bacteria. By memorizing the sequence of the virus or DNA, it threatens the bacteria and uses the enzyme Cas (Cas enzyme) to destroy that genetic fragment in the event of a subsequent infection. (Also read: Viruses that threaten bacteria or bacteriophages.) Call this system collectively. CRISPR, CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR), which refers to the accumulated, regularly intersecting short palindromic repetitions of CRISPR, is used as a method of genetic manipulation in both plants and animals, cells and organisms. To be used in research around the world to improve the genetics of living things. It is considered the most effective method for genome editing.
Who will receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021?
Most of the world’s most innovative chemistry and technology innovations for 2021 have not won the Nobel Prize in the past year. Which of these will receive the Nobel Prize? Most of these are studies that have been studied for decades and the benefits of which are open to the international community. In 2021, these technologies are expected to win awards in the field of chemistry this year. In particular, research on the use of scientific knowledge and new technologies to combat COVID-19. It is also very interesting to look at. As for who it will be, the author summed it up. Readers are invited to join the chance to win 4 outstanding chemical studies that are ready to change the world again in 2021.
1. Using the power of mRNA
Scientists: Dr. Catalin Kariko and Dr. Drew Weissman, University of Pennsylvania, USA
The study of biomolecules called MRNA and the discovery of a chemical transformation that prevents the detection and destruction of the human immune system. It has been researched and developed by Pfizer-BioEntech and Moderna for more than 30 years before it was immediately used in the development of mRNA vaccines. which we are all very familiar with so far. And both are developing mRNA vaccines to fight many other infectious diseases.
2. Sort genomes faster and cheaper
Scientists: Dr. Shankar Balasubramanian and Dr. David Klenerman, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Genome sequencing or DNA genetic coding of organisms with fast and inexpensive technology. The new generation sequence is a study that allows us to know the information of giant genetic codes, such as the human genome. Be able to use many benefits easily today. It is used to accurately detect cancer or other genetic diseases, or even to decipher the genetics of the COVID-19 virus, which quickly revealed the structure and mechanism of action of the virus. and was able to develop a vaccine to fight the fastest viral epidemic in history.
3. Conduct chemistry in living organisms
Scientist: Dr. Carolyn Bertozzi, Stanford University, USA
Invents new chemical reactions that can occur in living organisms. Bio orthogonal chemistry, a chemical reaction that can occur in water, a key component in cells, was discovered more than 20 years ago. It is very surprising, and so far it has changed the minds of chemists and biologists, because no one expected such a reaction to be possible. And this technology has been used to study many biomolecules in different organisms. These reactions, especially with sugar, are now widely used in research all over the world. and is an important tool in the manufacture of drugs Create sensors to detect cancer and tuberculosis Or is used for the synthesis of many useful chemicals.
4. MOF and covalent -organic frames
Scientists: University of California, Berkeley, Dr. from the United States. Omar Yagi and Dr. from the University of Tokyo in Japan. Makoto Fujita
Research on Macromolecular Special Materials Supramolecular materials, briefly known as MOF for metal-organic frames, are materials in which metal and organic elements are bonded to a porous 3D cage. It is an advanced material that has many uses today, such as its use as a storage material for hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Used as an energy reservoir Used as a gas separator and gas cleaning material. Used as a catalyst for many chemicals. It is used as a drug and as a component material in capacitor batteries. supercapacitor frames with materials with similar special properties, ie COF (COFs) or covalent -organic pores. They have a strong crystalline structure and some have good electrical conductivity. This has various benefits.
Dr. National University of Singapore. Dr. Barry Halliwell, who developed the synthesis or polymerization of live radial polymers by metal catalysis. There are studies by Mitsuo Sawamoto on free radicals, antioxidants, and human health) and other important biological and mRNA vaccine delivery technologies are lipid nanoparticles. Or lipid nanoparticles are on the list of potential Nobel laureates.
About Alfred Bernard Nobel
Alfred Bernhard Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer His work is known as the invention of the dynamite bomb. Before his death in 1896, he wrote a will, donating a large part of his wealth. To reward the person who benefits the most from humanity every year. As he said, “Rewards to those who have done the greatest benefit to humanity over the past year.” The Nobel Foundation was founded in 1900 and began. The first prize was awarded in 1901 in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature. Each field, for example, is considered an award of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Chemistry and Physics.