October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in American women after skin cancer. In fact, a woman in the United States has a 12% (1 in 8) risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. In addition, the risk of dying from breast cancer is 1 in 38. Thus, raising awareness is extremely important. Regular examinations help to detect precancerous and cancerous breast tissue that may be present in healthy people. With proper diagnosis and treatment in the early stages, breast cancer can be one of the most treatable types of cancer.
The main types of breast cancer
Ductal carcinoma: It is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the lining of the milk ducts (thin tubes leading from the breast lobes to the nipple). Ductal carcinoma can be either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, non-invasive condition) or invasive duct carcinoma (IDC).
Lobular carcinoma: This cancer begins in the breast lobes (mammary glands) or may be localized lobular carcinoma (LCIS, non-invasive) or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). LCIS is rarely invasive, but being in one breast increases the risk of developing invasive breast cancer.
Inflammatory breast cancer: A type of breast cancer in which the breasts appear red and swollen and feel hot. Redness and heat are caused by cancer cells closing the lymphatic vessels in the skin.
Triple negative breast cancer: It describes breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or a large number of HER2 / neu proteins. It is also called ER-negative PR-negative HER2 / neu-negative breast cancer.
Recurrent breast cancer: Breast cancer can recur if the treatment does not completely destroy or destroy all the cancer cells.
Signs and symptoms of breast cancer
The most common symptoms of breast cancer are:
Chest or armpit (armpit)
Swelling or thickening of all or part of the breast
Breast staining or irritation
Local, persistent chest pain
Redness, scales or thickening on the skin of the nipple or breast
Breast shrinkage or discharge (excluding breast milk)
Any change in breast size or shape
It is important to remember that breast tumors are common, especially in premenopausal women. There are many different lumps, most of which are not cancerous. Most lumps are benign, such as soft, fluid-filled particles (especially premenstrual), rubber patches that move under the skin and are generally painless, or fibrocystic changes that cause a painful condition. , heeled breasts. When milk sacs form cysts, good tissue is formed from adipose tissue deposits or breast milk. There may be a lump as a result of the injury, as well as bruising of the breast or after breast surgery. Every woman should learn these symptoms and have a monthly breast examination along with a mammogram that can help women prevent breast cancer, in addition to knowing the risk factors for breast cancer.
What is my risk of breast cancer?
Being a woman is a major risk factor for breast cancer, as the disease is most common in women 55 and older. Many uncontrolled factors, such as race and ethnicity, personal / family history, breast density, and menstrual cycle, increase the risk of breast cancer. In addition, changes in certain breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
Another category is lifestyle-related risk factors such as the use of birth control pills, postmenopausal hormone therapy, childbirth, alcohol consumption, overweight and sedentary lifestyles.
It should be noted that the presence of one or more risk factors does not mean that a woman will develop breast cancer. Although it is important to know all the risk factors to reduce the risk of breast cancer, and especially for those who can lead a lifestyle. At least 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of intense intensity (or a combination of these) is recommended. The ACS recommends that women not drink more than one drink a day to reduce their risk of breast cancer. The ACS recommends regular breast cancer screening for all women over the age of 40.
Breast cancer examination
Breast cancer screening guidelines are set by the American College of Radiology and the Breast Imaging Society. It involves a risk assessment of a woman in her 30s to see if she needs to be examined before the age of 40. Women who have previously been diagnosed with breast cancer, especially if they have been diagnosed with cancer at the age of 50 or earlier, may benefit from additional screening with magnetic resonance imaging. Three tests are used to detect breast cancer:
Mammography is a breast cancer used to detect and evaluate breast changes. Its detection capacity depends on the size of the tumor and the density of breast tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) mammography is a type of digital mammography in which X-ray machines are used to take pictures of thin slices of the breast from different angles and to create an image to set up a computer.
Breast ultrasound is used in conjunction with mammography for high-risk women who cannot undergo MRI and women with dense breast tissue.
- Breast MRI is used to examine high-risk people and to gather more information about suspicious areas found on a mammogram or ultrasound.
According to the American Breast Cancer Foundation, health professionals can treat breast cancer in many different ways. Each person’s treatment depends on the stage of breast cancer and the plan recommended by their doctor. Different types of treatment include sentinel lymph node biopsy, radiation (including brachytherapy with external radiation and internal radiation), chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy, and breast protection surgery (partial or segmental mastectomy or lumpectomy).
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